《業》仁波切 2021 美國加州開示

笨居士 | 2021年07月29日 發佈 | 閱讀需 22 分鐘 | YouTube | #翻譯作品

水晶三稜鏡

譯者按:頂禮本師釋迦牟尼佛!恕譯者才疏學淺,未明心要,謬誤在所難免,僅供參考。所譯文字未經上師認可,或專業翻譯機構校對,純以個人學習為目的,轉載或引用請慎重。

Introduction

Karma [is a] subject that has been repeated billions of times, and [a] subject that has been continuously misunderstood billions of times. I would say, arguably, the subject of karma is probably the most difficult subject to teach and to understand.

業力是一個被重複了數十億次的題目,也是一個被持續誤解了數十億次的題目。我想說,可以說,業力的主題可能是最難教和最難理解的主題。

At a glance, when we talk about karma in the context of cause and effect, to a certain extent it’s acceptable [i.e. something that we can accept]. I mean, it’s chewable, so to speak. It’s even quite scientific. Probably the philosophy of karma is actually what many Buddhists are kind of proud of. We are believers in karma

一眼望去,當我們在因果關係的上下文中談論業力時,在某種程度上,它是可以接受的。我的意思是,它是可以咀嚼的,可以這麼說。它甚至相當科學。可能關於業力的哲學是許多佛教徒有點自豪的地方,我們是業力的信仰者。

Isn’t there an expression “God fearing nation”? I don’t think you can really have that kind of expression, “karma fearing nation”. I don’t think you can have that. But people do. You know sometimes as we talk about karma, we can pick up that Buddhists talk as if they’re afraid of karma. So then we have to be careful here.

不是有一個「敬畏上帝的民族」的說法嗎?我不認爲你們真的可以說我們是「敬畏業力的民族」。我認爲你不可以這麼說,但是人們確實是這樣想的。你知道有時當我們談論業力時,我們會發現佛教徒說話,好像他們害怕業力一樣。因此,我們在這裏必須要小心。

When we talk about the gross level of karma — such as if you plant rice, then rice will grow. if you plant marigold, then marigold [will grow] — I think generally people can sort of accept that level of karma. But once karma embarks more on the subtle and more refined [level], then karma gets really deep and vast.

當我們在粗略的層面談論業力時,例如,如果你種植水稻,那麼水稻就會生長;如果你種植金盞花,金盞花就會生長,我認爲一般人可以接受這種水平的業力。但是,一旦業力開始進入更微妙和更精細的層面,它就會變得非常深刻和廣大。

Buddhists would say something like this, “God did not create us. We are created by karma”. So sometimes this expression indicates that our fate or destiny is in our hands, so to speak. Karma. We are a byproduct of our karma. We are not controlled by God.

佛教徒會這樣說:「上帝並沒有創造我們。我們是由業力創造的。」有時這種表達方式似乎在說,我們的命運和歸宿掌握在我們自己手中,業力就是這個意思,我們是我們業力的副產品,我們不受上帝的控制。

Karma is difficult to talk about

But it’s not that straightforward too:

但這也不是那麼簡單的事。

We have choice, but only to an extent

It’s a bit like before [an] egg is [fully] cooked, you can control how much [you would like to cook it]. Soft boiled, hard boiled, you can do all of that. But once the egg is 99.99% cooked, then karma does not mean that “It’s in your hands”. So sometimes karma can be very tyrannical. Basically, what I’m saying is that you [might] get this sense when Buddhists say, “We believe in karma. We don’t believe in a God who dictates our life”, that they sort of exude this “It’s in our hands”. But just be careful when you say this.

這有點像在一個雞蛋完全煮熟之前,你可以控制你想把它煮到什麼程度。嫩的,老的,你都可以做。但是一旦雞蛋 99.99% 熟了,那麼業力就不意味着你可以掌控一切。所以有時業力會非常暴虐。基本上,我想說的是,當佛教徒說「我們相信業力」時,你可能會有這種感覺:「我們不相信有一個主宰我們生活的上帝」,他們有點散發出這種「一切都在我們的掌控中」的意味。但是,你說這句話的時候要特別小心。

Time is vague

Another reason why karma is so difficult is [that] when you talk about karma, you have to talk about time. Obviously, right? The time when you eat so many chillis affects the time you go to the toilet. So you have to talk about some sort of time [for example], “Oh, I must have had a bad karma in my past life. That’s why I’m here like this, like that”. So you are talking about time. And this makes it difficult, because time is one of the vaguest things. It’s one of the most vague phenomena, but [it is nevertheless] one of the forces that makes things so real. How frustrating. It’s the most ridiculous thing, yet it is the thing that makes things so real and painful and exciting. So this is why it’s difficult.

業力如此難講的另一個原因是,當你談論業力時,你必須談論時間。很明顯對嗎?你吃了太多辣椒的時刻,會對上廁所的時刻,產生影響。所以你必須談論某種時間,例如「我過去生中一定有一個壞的業力,導致我現在會這樣或那樣」。所以你在談論時間。這使它變得更難講,因爲時間是最曖昧的東西之一。時間是最曖昧的現象之一,同時也是使事物如此真實的力量之一。多麼令人沮喪。它是最荒謬的東西,但它是使事情如此真實、痛苦和激動的東西。這就是爲什麼那麼難講。

Logic is vague

Another reason why karma is difficult to talk [about is that] when you talk about karma [in terms of] cause, condition and effect, it’s very logical. [However], logic is another vaguest thing that we have that traps us. I know many of you love reasoning and logic, I’m sure those who have been to Yale and Harvard and the British people here, the Cambridge people. The age of reason. Renaissance. The philosopher Voltaire. You guys, listen. I’m talking to Richard Dixey, by the way. So you love reason, you love logic — but hear this. It’s the vaguest, [most] ridiculous thing that makes you trapped the most. Because it’s logical. It’s sensible.

業力難以談論的另一個原因是,當你從因緣果的角度談論業力時,它非常符合邏輯。然而,邏輯是另一個我們擁有的最曖昧的東西,常常困住我們。我知道你們很多人喜歡推理和邏輯,我相信那些上過耶魯大學和哈佛大學的人,以及這裏的英國人,特別是劍橋人。理性主義的時代(譯:啓蒙運動)呀,文藝復興呀,哲學家伏爾泰啊,你們這些人啊,嘿,我在和理查德·迪克西(譯:仁波切的弟子)說話。所以你喜歡理性,你喜歡邏輯,但是,聽好了:邏輯是最曖昧的,最荒謬的東西,最會讓你困頓的東西。因爲它是合乎邏輯的,它是合理的。

Ideas of good and bad are vague

I can actually go on more, but just one more reason why karma is difficult. Karma is difficult especially when we begin to talk about bad karma and good karma. Because bad and good are like the king and the queen of vagueness. Oh my goodness, they are [so] vague. Wow, good, bad.

其實我還可以繼續說下去,但我想再多加一個原因。為什麼業力是難講的?特別是當我們開始談論惡業和善業時。因爲善惡就像曖昧領域裡的國王和皇后。哦,我的天哪,它們是如此的含糊不清。善呀,惡呀。

There are no ultimate causes

I have to tell you this. Another reason why karma is difficult. Basically, the philosophy of karma is the teachings on chicken and egg. Which one came first, chicken or egg? I’m going to come back to this one. This one is important. You see, when we use words such as “cause” and “effect”, not even for a moment [do] we think that the very cause that we are talking [about] is actually a result of another cause. This is one of the causes of fundamental misunderstanding and mistakes.

我必須要告訴你們,難以談論業力的另一個原因。基本上,業力的哲學是一種「雞生蛋蛋生雞」的教法。哪一個先出現,雞還是蛋?我將回到這個問題上,這個問題很重要。你看,當我們使用「因」和「果」這樣的詞時,我們甚至一刻也沒有想到,我們正在談論的那個因實際上是另一個因的果。這是造成基本誤解和錯誤的原因之一。

Karma is taught for the sake of understanding shunyata

One last thing, why karma is difficult [to] teach and understand. Karma is difficult to understand, especially in Buddhism because actually the real reason why there is a teaching called karma is that Buddhists want you to understand shunyata. That’s the only reason why there is a teaching [on] karma. Nothing else.

最後一件事,爲什麼業力很難被教導和理解,特別是在佛教中。因爲實際上,有一個叫做業力的教法的真正原因是,佛教徒想讓你理解「空性」。空性才是爲什麼需要業力教法的唯一原因,沒有其他原因。

So, this should tell you that karma is not destiny. Karma is not fate. But karma also has nothing to do with free will. Destiny, no. Free will, no. Because when we talk about destiny and free will in the ordinary world, it seems that people are talking about a conclusion after an analysis. I’m sorry to speak very academically, but this is the only way for now. Because karma is actually relative. It’s not absolute.

所以,這些應該能告訴你,業力不是宿命,業力不是命運。但業力也與自由意志無關。宿命論?不是。自由意志論?也不是。因爲當我們在普通世界裏談論宿命和自由意志時,人們似乎在談論分析之後的結論。我很抱歉說得很學術,但這是目前唯一的方法。因爲業力實際上是相對的,它不是絕對(究竟)的。

Karma is an illusion

There are a lot of people who think, “Oh, you are Buddhist. You must be one of those guys who are trying to collect good karma and trying to get rid of bad karma”. Wrong. That’s a wrong way of putting it. Buddhists want to go beyond karma, bad or good. [They want to go] beyond karma. Because from the Buddhist point of view, karma is an illusion. But [it’s] still very powerful. The word “illusion” should not make you sort of downgrade karma. No, it’s very powerful. Illusion is actually very powerful.

有很多人認爲,如果你是佛教徒,那你一定是那些試圖收集善業,並試圖擺脫惡業的人之一。錯!這是個錯誤的說法。佛教徒想要「超越」業力,不管是壞的還是好的。他們想超越業力,因爲從佛教的角度來看,業力是一種幻覺。但它仍然非常強大。幻覺這個詞不應該讓你輕視業力,它是非常強大的。幻覺實際上是非常強大的。

If I am dreaming [about] a glass of water [DJKR picks up his glass of water], in my dream that dream-glass can hold dream-water [DJKR drinks some water from the glass]. And in my dream when I drink, there’s even [the experience of] time. Water. Beginning of the sipping, slowly slowly going down the throat and arrival at the stomach. Even time exists in the dream.

如果我夢見一杯水(仁波切拿起他的水杯),在我的夢中,那個夢中的杯子可以容納夢中的水(仁波切從杯子中喝了一些水)。而在我的夢中,當我喝水時,甚至還能感知到時間。水,開始時喝到嘴裡,然後慢慢地順着喉嚨,到達胃部。甚至時間也存在於夢中。

And what? Suddenly you realize you have been drinking bleach. That’s called “nightmare”. Yes, and in that dream you could call 9-1-1. And then the ambulance can arrive and you can go to the hospital. All of that you can do. Arrival at the hospital. About to die. Somebody saves you. All of that you can do.

然後呢?突然間,你意識到你一直在喝漂白劑,就是所謂的「惡夢」。是的,在那個夢裏你可以撥打 9-1-1,然後救護車會到達。你可以去醫院,所有這些你都可以做。到達醫院,也許你差點死了,也許有人救了你,所有這些你都可以做。

In reality, not a moment [has passed]. Maybe you only napped for two minutes after a heavy lunch. And you have not moved from your sofa, even one centimetre. But the logic, the game [of karma] — even though it’s not really happening, it has all the impact. Bad karma, good karma. Please think [about good and bad karma] in that context.

這個時候,現實的時間並沒有過去。也許你只是在一頓豐盛的午餐後打了兩分鐘的盹,而你沒有從沙發上移開,一釐米都沒有。但是邏輯和業力的遊戲,即使它沒有真正發生過,它還是產生了影響。惡業和善業只能在這種上下文中存在。

You see, when we talk about predestination or free will, then [we] are not talking about the dream. The glass in the dream, the water in the dream, the bleach in the dream, the 9-1-1. [If you are talking about predestination] you are talking about true reality, [which is] something that cannot be changed, isn’t it? Destiny. Something that you cannot avoid.

你看,當我們談論宿命論或自由意志時,我們就已經不是在談論夢了。原本是夢中的玻璃,夢中的水,夢中的漂白劑,夢中的 9-1-1。可是如果你在談宿命論,你就試圖在談論真正的現實,那些東西變成了無法改變的東西,不是嗎?命運是你無法避免的東西。

Okay, so I think we have talked enough [about] the overall understanding of so-called karma [in] Buddhism generally, and perhaps the way I’m explaining it may have a little bit of a Mahayana sort of flavour.

好吧,我想我們已經談得夠多了,關於佛教對所謂業力的總體理解,也許我解釋的方式可能有一點大乘佛教的味道。

There are a lot of questions here. Probably I will not be able to finish all the answering all the questions, but I think many of the statements I’m making here are hopefully dealing with the questions that you have come up with. Okay. So, now, to be more specific.

這裏有很多問題。我可能無法完成對所有問題的回答,但我認爲我在這裏所做的許多陳述,都已經能夠解答你們提出的問題了。好的,那麼現在說得更具體一點。

Apply the understanding of karma

How do you apply the understanding of karma as a Buddhist?

作爲一個佛教徒,你該如何應用對業力的理解?

I have already told you that ultimately, the goal of a Buddhist has got nothing to do with collecting lots and lots of good karma and getting rid of lots and lots of bad karma. Our aim is to be free from the nightmare, free from the illusion of karma. That is the ultimate goal.

我已經告訴過你,最終,一個佛教徒的目標與收集大量大量的善業和擺脫大量大量的惡業無關。我們的目標是擺脫惡夢,擺脫業力的幻覺。這就是最終的目標。

But in the meantime, for those who have no clue about the illusory aspect of karma [we need a path]. They may have a little clue, but their habit of thinking [that the] illusion is real is so strong that their intellectual understanding is not enough [to allow them to overcome hope and fear].

但與此同時,對於那些對業力的虛幻性不太了解的人,他們可能有了一點頭緒,但他們認爲業力是真實的,這種習慣是如此強烈,以至於他們僅僅在智力上理解是不夠的。

[So for] those who have the wish to untangle or liberate ourselves from this kind of entanglement and bondage of karma, what do we do? We apply three kinds of what we call “discipline”. In Buddhism, we talk about three disciplines:

對於那些希望從這種業力的糾纏和束縛中解脫自己的人來說,我們該怎麼做?我們運用三種我們稱之爲「戒律」的東西。在佛教中,我們談及三種戒律。

Ethical discipline (shila): A discipline of ethics. We will come back to that.

(1)關於道德倫理的戒律,我們一會兒再談。

Meditative concentration/one-pointedness (samadhi): And then a discipline to make your mind malleable or focused.

(2)然後是一種紀律,使你的心具有可塑性或專注性。(譯:禪定)

Wisdom (prajña): And lastly, most importantly, a discipline to become acquainted [with] and actually realize the truth. Prajña. Basically, wisdom.

(3)最後一種,也是最重要,為了通曉並證得實相的紀律。叫做「般若」,基本上是指智慧。

Out of these three — ethics, one pointedness or concentration or samadhi, and prajña — the third, prajña or wisdom is the most important. Without prajña or wisdom, ethics and one-pointedness or concentration is not [really] qualified as the Buddhist path, let’s say.

在道德,一心專注(三摩地),以及般若,這三者中,第三者,般若智慧是最重要的。如果沒有般若智慧,道德和一心專注不能算是真正的佛教的法道,我們可以這麼說。

Because [in Buddhism, any kind of] discipline, whatever discipline you’re applying, must help you get at least closer to the truth. So, let’s say one of the disciplines in the so-called Buddhist practice is sitting. Well, that’s just one very small one. If that discipline of sitting straight is not taking you closer to the truth [by] any means, this discipline is not working.

因爲,無論你運用什麼戒律,都必須幫助你至少更接近真相。這麼說吧,其中的一個戒律(或者叫修行)是打坐,當然,這只是非常小的一個。如果打坐這門戒律沒有通過任何方式讓你更接近真相,那麼這個戒律就沒有用。

What is the truth that we wish to realize as Buddhists?

In case there are people who are new, let’s say [the truth that we wish to understand includes] the truth of impermanence. The fact that we are going to die. [The truth that] we are dying actually. This truth needs to be realized. Not only intellectually, but practically. And [we also wish to realize the truth that] things are not truly existing [in the way that] they appear. This truth needs to be understood or realized. Not just intellectually, but practically.

既然今天有新人,我們就說一種叫做「無常」的真相,我們會死的真相,我們實際上正在死亡的真相。這個真相需要被實證。不僅是智力上的,而且是實修上的。還有,事物並不是以它們所呈現的方式存在(譯:無我)。這個真相需要被理解和實證。也不僅僅是智力上的,而是實修上的。

If a change of season or a sunset makes you realize the changing nature of our life better than sitting in a temple, that method of gazing at a sunset is considered a discipline of ethics, and a discipline of samadhi or concentration.

如果換季或夕陽,比在寺廟打坐,更能讓你意識到生命的無常本質,那麼這種凝視夕陽的方法就會被認爲是一種道德的戒律,也是一種三摩地和專注的戒律。

Many times when we talk about karma, people seem to only talk about karma related to the body. And maybe some seem to talk about karma that’s related to the speech. But hardly [any] people talk [or] think [about] karma related to the mind. When, in fact, karma created by the mind is the most important and most powerful. And this is also probably a big differentiation between the Buddhist idea of karma and the so-called Hindu idea of karma.

很多時候,當我們談論業力時,人們似乎只談論與身體有關的業,也許有些人似乎在談論與語言有關的業,但幾乎沒有人談論與心有關的業。而事實上,由心創造的業是最重要和最強大的。這也可能是佛教對業的觀念,和所謂的印度教對業的觀念之間的一個巨大區別。

So mind’s karma — in other words, motivation — a right motivation, especially motivation such as bodhichitta, wishing to enlighten [and] awaken all sentient beings. With that kind of motivation, basically, every action you engage [in] becomes what we call good karma. But this is not the end [i.e. our aim or goal]. You create so-called good karma — again, just to remind you, good karma is something that takes you closer to the truth — but this so-called good karma has to also exhaust.

心的業,換句話說,又叫發心(譯:英文是動機的意思),正確的發心,尤其是菩提心這樣的發心,希望令所有的有情衆生證悟和覺醒的發心。有了這種發心,基本上,你從事的每一個行動都會成爲我們所說的善業。但這不是目的,即使你創造了所謂的善業(再次提醒你,善業是讓你更接近真相的東西),這個所謂的善業也必將耗盡。

Okay, we’ll take a short break because I need to read the questions.

好的,我們短暫地休息一下,因爲我需要閱讀這些紙上的問題。

Okay, now I’ll try to be more specific. But as I said earlier, karma is quite vast and it’s not so easy.

好吧,現在我試着說得更具體一些。但正如我先前所說,業力的教法相當廣大,而且不是那麼容易。

Good karma and bad karma

For instance, when we talk about bad karma and good karma. Yes, broadly speaking, [as] a big generalization, you can [say that] things like killing, stealing, lying are bad karma. Also, when we talk about karmic consequences, broadly you can say [that for things] like, sickness, sadness, a dysfunctional life, you can sort of broadly say “It is my bad karma”. Very broadly.

比如說,當我們談論惡業和善業的時候,廣義上,超級概括地,你可以說像殺人、偷竊、說謊這樣的事情是惡業。另外,當我們談論業力的果時,廣義上你可以說疾病、悲傷、不正常的生活這些,你可以大致說「可能這是我的惡業吧」。這是非常廣義上的。

Because we human beings tend to think like that, “Oh, he’s very lucky. He has a lot of money”. In that kind of sense. [But] that’s very subjective. From what point of view are we deciding that somebody is lucky just because they have a lot of money? Some people say, “Oh, he must have a lot of merit because he lived long”. We human beings think stuff like that is good, like living long. Wealthy. Stuff like that. But that’s a very big generalization.

因爲我們人類傾向於這樣想「哦,他很幸運,他有很多錢」,是在這種意義上說的。但那是非常主觀的。我們可以從什麼角度來決定某人是幸運的?只是因爲他們有很多錢?有些人說「哦,他一定有很多功德,因爲他活得很長」。我們人類認爲這樣的東西是好的,比如長壽和財富,諸如此類的東西,但這是一個非常大的概括。

And based on this kind of generalization, there are also many specific generalizations. Like some Buddhists would think if you are sick, this may be because your Dharma practice is sort of gathering up all your bad karma and making it happen now so that you will not go through the consequences later. There’s that kind of generalization. We really don’t know this.

而在這種概括的基礎上,也有很多更具體的概括,就像有些佛教徒會認爲,如果你生病了,這可能是因爲你的佛法修行聚集了你所有的所謂惡業,讓它現在發生,這樣你就不會在以後經歷這些果了,有這種概括性的說法。但我們真的不知道是否可以這麼說。

As I’ve said in the past on one occasion, some of you may remember this [example]. Since I’m in California, I think it’s safe to say this. One could almost say that it is marijuana, that phenomenon of this grass, [which] has brought a lot of people to places like Nepal, and then subsequently they ended up meeting some great masters. So, for some people the appearance of marijuana may be due to [their] good karma. Please don’t share this with other people.

我過去曾在一個場合說過這個例子,你們有些人可能記得。由於我此刻在加利福尼亞,我這麼說也沒事。幾乎可以說,正是因為大麻這種草的現象,才把很多人帶到了尼泊爾這樣的地方,最終他們遇到了一些偉大的大師。因此,對一些人來說,大麻的出現可能是他們的善業。請不要跟別人說這些。

中國和印度之間的絲綢貿易,可能正是佛法從印度傳到中國的因。我在用佛教徒的口吻說話。站在佛教徒的立場上,評價一個業是善是惡,總是跟這個業是否讓你更接近佛法有關。在這裡佛法指的就是實相。

There are guys like Jigme Lingpa who would look at some people on earth who have everything, all material things that a human being can dream of, but not a moment of the sound of Dharma [in their lives]. From Jigme Lingpa’s point of view, this guy has no good karma.

像吉美林巴這樣的人,他會看着地球上的一些人,他們擁有一切,擁有人類夢寐以求的所有物質條件,但卻沒有一刻聽到佛法的聲音。從吉美林巴的角度來看,這個人沒有善業。

So, to specifically say that a certain [particular] consequence is the result of bad karma is very difficult to decide.

所以,具體說某一個果是善是惡,還是很難決定的。

Logic of cause, condition and effect

Earlier, I was telling you about [how] cause and effect has a sense of logic. In the dream, the glass in the dream does hold water, but that does not make that dream-glass real in the waking time [Ed.: the dream-glass functions during the dream, which might make us think that it’s real]. Now, we are talking quite philosophically. So, those who are not used to this, please bear [with] this.

剛剛我正在告訴你因果是有一種很邏輯的感覺的。在夢裡,夢中的玻璃杯確實可以裝水,但這並不意味着夢中的玻璃杯在清醒時是真實存在的。現在,我們正在談論相當哲學的問題。所以,那些不習慣的人,請忍耐一下。

Many times cause and effect is used as a tool to validate something. In your passport, which is like the proof of your existence, a big part of the passport is the birth date. When you were born. [A passport also] used to [include] even the father’s name and mother’s name [as validation], but not anymore, You understand?

很多時候,因果被用作驗證某些東西的工具。在你的護照上,為了證明你是存在的,護照的重要部分是出生日期,你是什麼時候出生的。護照曾經還包括父親的名字和母親的名字作爲驗證,不過現在沒了。明白嗎?

Okay, let me put it another way. If you plant a tomato [seed], only a tomato [plant] grows. If you plant an orange [seed], only an orange [tree] grows. This logic then makes us forget that this is illusion [Ed.: i.e. none of tomato seed, tomato plant, orange seed or orange tree are truly existent]. Because today we plant orange [and] tomorrow only orange comes, not banana. If banana comes then we will think “Okay . . .?” There will be confusion.

好吧,讓我換個說法。如果你種下番茄的種子,只能長出番茄。如果你種下橙子的種子,就只能長出橙子。這種邏輯使我們忘記了這是幻覺。因爲今天我們種了橙子,明天只有橙子長出來,而不是香蕉。如果長出了香蕉,那我們會覺得有點混亂。

So [there is] this kind of legitimation and validation through the logic of cause, condition and effect. In fact, there’s another thing that the Buddhists usually add — cause, condition, no obstacle, [then the] result is guaranteed:

所以有這種通過因、緣、果的邏輯進行的合法化和驗證。事實上,還有一件事,佛教徒通常會增加一條「沒有障礙」,那麼結果就是有保證的了。

Cause: Plant a tomato seed — cause.

種下一顆番茄種子,這是因。

Conditions: Such as fertilizer, water, space . . . there are so many. We will talk about conditions a little later, because that’s important.

緣,例如肥料、水、空間。。。有很多。我們稍後討論緣,因爲這很重要。

No obstacle: Meaning no insects eating the seed or no birds eating the seed.

沒有障礙,意思是沒有昆蟲吃掉種子,也沒有鳥吃掉種子。

Result: Then even if you pray [for] no tomato, it won’t work. Tomato will still grow.

然後,即使你祈求沒有番茄,也不會成功。番茄還是會長出來。(譯:這是果)

While we are at this, let’s talk about the definition [of cause]. Let’s scrutinize cause and condition. This is very tricky, [and] I think this tricky thing has really caused lots of misunderstanding.

既然如此,我們就來談談因緣的定義,讓我們仔細研究一下因緣,這是非常棘手的問題。我認爲這個棘手的問題確實造成了很多誤解。

As I said earlier, remember this. Buddhists don’t have a thesis that says “This is THE cause, the only cause”. Buddhists don’t have that. So it’s because of this that Buddhists don’t talk about Genesis. Buddhists really don’t like talking about things like “the beginning”. They scratch their heads the moment you use words like “beginning” and “end”. Then they just don’t know what to do with you. So Buddhists don’t accept [things like] an original cause.

正如我之前所說,請記住這一點,佛教徒從沒有一個理論說「這就是因,唯一的因」,佛教徒沒有這個說法。正因爲如此,佛教徒不談論「創世」。佛教徒真的不喜歡談「起點」這樣的東西。當你使用「起點」和「終點」這樣的字眼時,他們就會抓耳撓腮,他們不知道該怎麼跟你聊了。因此,佛教徒不接受有一個最初的因。

Now conditions are myriad. Incredibly, just so vast. And this is where things get so difficult, because you cannot [account for all the conditions that influence how cause and effect function]. On a very gross level, as I’ve already told you, you can talk about the tomato seed as the real cause, [and the] fertilizer and watering as conditions, but this is only on the gross level.

緣其實是大量的,令人難以置信的廣大。這就是事情變得如此困難的地方,因爲你無法枚舉。在非常粗略的層面上,正如我已經告訴你的,你可以把番茄種子作爲真正的因來談論,而把施肥和灌溉作爲緣,但這只是粗略的層面。

On a [more] subtle level, [let’s say] you are planting a tomato in India, and let’s say you have [as] a condition some cow dung as fertilizer. And let’s say this cow ate some plastic just that morning. Can you understand now? This condition has an impact on this tomato that you are about to eat. But even this is [on] a very gross level. There are so many [other conditions]. We don’t know the great, great, great, great, great, great, great grandmother of this cow. We don’t know where that cow came from. Maybe Jersey? You know, there are a lot of Jersey cows in India.

在一個更微妙的層面上,假設你在印度種植番茄,假設你有一個緣是一些牛糞作爲肥料,假設這頭牛那天早上剛吃了一些塑料下去,理解了嗎?這個緣對你要吃的這個番茄有影響。但即使是這樣,也是在非常粗略的層面上,有這麼多的緣。我們不知道這頭牛的曾曾曾曾曾曾曾曾祖母。我們不知道這頭牛來自哪裏,也許是澤西?你知道,在印度有很多澤西牛。

And the motivation [for farmers to use] Jersey cows is because they give more milk. See? The motivation. There are people in East Bhutan — I’m sure there are some Bhutanese listening to this — there are people in East Bhutan who prefer to drink [the milk from a special Bhutanese breed of cow]. What’s the name of this special cow? Sorry, I forgot [the name]. Anyway, it’s a very special cow [which produces] very little milk, but it’s supposedly really precious and nutritious and a gold class level of milk. Now I’m talking about human attitude and human motivation. These are all conditions.

大量使用澤西牛的動機,是因爲它們產奶更多。看到了嗎?動機(譯:發心)。在東不丹有一些人(此刻有一些不丹人在聽)喜歡喝一種特殊的不丹品種奶牛的奶,叫什麼名字我忘了。總之,是一種非常特殊的牛,產奶量很少,但據說真的很珍貴,營養豐富,是牛奶中的金獎級別。現在我在談論人的態度和人的發心,這些都是緣。

Relationship between motivation and karma

There are people who are like myself and I can sometimes be very kind of religious fanatic, you know. So there are people like me who go to India and try to drink Indian cow milk because I have this idea that maybe the Indians cow’s great, great, great, great, great, great, great grandmother may have [had] a glance of the Buddha sitting under the Bodhi tree. Wow, what a connection. You understand what I’m saying? So, that’s how the motivation plays here. That would be so good, right?

有些人像我一樣,我有時會很有一種宗教狂熱,你知道。有的人像我一樣,去印度,喝印度牛奶,因爲我有這樣的想法,也許這頭印度牛的曾曾曾曾曾曾曾曾祖母可能有一眼看到了坐在菩提樹下的佛陀!哇,多好的連結啊。你明白我在說什麼嗎?所以,這就是發心的作用,這將是非常好的。

This is why people like very religious Buddhist devotees go to places like Nepal, for instance. Because somewhere in Kathmandu, around that place, a long time ago, many hundreds and thousands of years and lifetimes ago, Shakyamuni Buddha was just a bodhisattva [who was] just beginning to practice Dharma, so to speak. He was a handsome young man with long hair, all of that.

這就是爲什麼,非常虔誠的佛教信徒會去尼泊爾這樣的地方。因爲在加德滿都的某個地方,在那個地方周圍,在很久以前,很多幾百幾千年和幾輩子以前,釋迦牟尼佛只是一位菩薩,剛剛開始修行佛法,可以這麼說。他是一個英俊的年輕人,有長長的頭髮。

And one day as he was roaming around in the streets, he bumped into Dipankara Buddha coming towards him. The moment he saw Dipankara Buddha, he had goosebumps. He had just an amazing feeling towards this Buddha.

有一天,他在街上閒逛時,撞見燃燈佛向他走來。當他看到燃燈佛的那一刻,他起了一身雞皮疙瘩,他對這位佛有一種奇妙的感覺。

And he saw [there was a pothole ahead of] Dipankara Buddha [as he] was walking on the road. Kathmandu. A muddy pothole. And he didn’t know what to do. So he quickly [cut] off his hair and placed it on the pothole, to [allow] Dipankara Buddha to walk. Dipankara Buddha walked on that, and Dipankara Buddha told him that “Many aeons later, you will become Siddhartha, Shakyamuni, Gautama”. He prophesied that.

他看到燃燈佛前面有一個坑,他在加德滿都的路上行走,遇到一個泥濘的坑(你們懂)。而他不知道該怎麼辦,於是他迅速剪下自己的頭髮,放在坑洞上,以便燃燈佛行走。燃燈佛在他的頭髮上走過,然後告訴他:「許多劫以後,你將成爲悉達多·喬達摩,釋迦牟尼佛。」他為他授記(譯:預言)。

So, many years later, there are people like us [who might have devotion towards the Buddhadharma]. Not all the time. My devotion [only comes] once in a blue moon. Not all the time. When I’m in good mood, so to speak. When I go to Kathmandu I sometimes [think] “Oh, maybe this pothole is where Shakyamuni Buddha put his hair”. So you feel [that it’s] so precious, each and every inch of Kathmandu — [even though it’s] dusty, dirty, shit everywhere, urine everywhere. You feel that anywhere could be the place where Dipankara walked and prophesied Shakyamuni Buddha. So this is what we call motivation.

所以,很多年後,有像我們這樣的人,極其稀有難得地出現了一次虔誠心。不是所有的時間,這麼說吧,只是當我心情好的時候。當我去加德滿都時,我突然想到「哦,也許這個坑是釋迦牟尼佛放頭髮的地方」。所以你覺得它是如此珍貴,加德滿都的每一寸土地,儘管它塵土飛揚,骯髒不堪,到處是屎,到處是尿,但你仍然覺得任何地方都可能是燃燈佛行走和授記釋迦牟尼佛的地方。所以這就是我們所說的發心。

Can a cooked egg be un-cooked?

Now quickly I will answer this. Because [as] I said earlier, if you cook an egg, you have a sort of a choice [about whether to cook it] soft or hard or whatever. But if you have cooked it 99.99%, or even actually fully cooked, then what? If you want to not cook [it], if you want to un-cook a totally cooked egg, what do you do? Do we now have a chance?

我會簡單地回答這個問題。正如我之前說的,如果你煮雞蛋,你當然可以選擇嫩的,還是老的,還是別的什麼。但是如果你已經把它煮了 99.99%,甚至是完全煮熟了,那怎麼辦?如果你不想它熟,如果你想把一個完全煮熟的雞蛋轉變成不熟的,你還能怎麼做?我們現在還有機會嗎?

Yes, we do have [a chance]. And this path is called Tantrayana. Because the tantric path is not really codependent to the philosophy of cause and effect.

是的,我們確實有!而這條道路被稱爲密乘。因爲密乘的道其實並不依附於因果的哲學。

Again, I have used this example before so some of you are quite familiar [with it]. For a tantric [practitioner], it’s like giving a gold expert a kilo of ore — unpolished, dirty, rocky, not at all shiny. [But if you give] a kilo of [gold] ore to a goldsmith, a gold expert – this person is equally happy to gain [this kilo of gold ore as to obtain] a kilo of gold. He will not [say], “No this is not shiny”. For the goldsmith or the gold expert, this is just gold. He doesn’t see the dirt at all.

同樣,我以前也用過這個例子,所以你們中的一些人相當熟悉。密乘有點像是給一個金礦石專家一公斤的金礦石,未經打磨的,有雜質的,石頭一般的,一點都不閃亮。但如果你把一公斤金礦石交給一個金匠,就是金礦石專家,這個人會像獲得了一公斤黃金一樣高興。他不會說:「不,這不閃亮」。對於金匠來說,這就是黃金,他根本就沒有看到其中的雜質。

Another example is a very experienced chef. A cook. When he or she cooks an omelette, even though [the omelette includes all the ingredients such as] onion, mushroom, tomato, and oil all put together, this chef does not see them separately. The [chef] already [has the] vision of the mushroom omelette. This is how the tantric [people] see oneself and others — already as the Buddha. But anyway, let’s not go there too much.

另一個例子是一個非常有經驗的廚師。當一個主廚要做西式蛋餅(譯:香港稱奄列,台灣稱歐姆蛋)時,儘管洋蔥、蘑菇、番茄和油才放到了一起,但這位廚師並沒有把它們分開來看,而是已經看到了蘑菇蛋餅。這就是密乘如何看待自己和他人:已經像佛一樣。好吧,我們不要過多地討論這個問題。

So that’s why [something that is] 100% cooked can be uncooked. Actually, it doesn’t end there. Tantric people will not even bother [to un-cook it]. Cooking, un-cooking — all this is exhausting. Leave it as it is.

所以這就是爲什麼 100% 熟透的東西還可以轉變為不熟的原因。實際上,這並沒有結束。密乘行者甚至不會費力在這個方面,煮熟,還是逆反為生,所有這些都消亡了。讓它就是它原來那樣吧。

Okay, as I said, karma is very big. I’m jumping everywhere, because we need to try to have at least some kind of meaningful conversation.

好吧,正如我所說,業力的教法非常大。我跳來跳去,因爲我們需要嘗試至少有點意義的對話。

Relationship between karma and rebirth

Karma is [related to time]. Maybe the word “related” is not the right word. [Karma is] almost synonymous to time. And therefore, whoever talks about karma, they have to talk about reincarnation. But I just want to give you a warning here that the English word “reincarnation” may not be doing justice [as a translation of] the actual word yangsi, or this kind of continuity.

業是與時間相關的,也許說相關並不恰當,業幾乎是時間的同義詞。因此,無論誰談論業,他們都必須談轉世。但我只想在這裏給你一個警告,英文 reincarnation (轉世再生)這個詞作為藏文 yangsi (音:楊希)的翻譯,可能是不夠好的,後者表達的是一種連續性。

I already gave you the example of how in the dream, if you’re drinking a glass of water, or poison, or milk — depending on the kind of causes and conditions, not only can the glass hold the milk, [but] there’s also seemingly time. Long time and short time is very relative. If you are somebody who loves ice cream, and in the dream you are eating your favourite ice cream, time might go fast. And if you hate ice cream, and in the dream somebody forces you to eat ice cream, then time might last so long.

我已經給你舉了一個例子,在夢中,如果你喝了一杯水,或毒藥,或牛奶,這取決於因和緣,不僅是杯子可以裝牛奶的緣,還有時間這個緣。時間長和時間短是非常相對的。如果你是一個喜歡吃冰淇淋的人,而在夢中你正在吃你最喜歡的冰淇淋,時間可能會變快。而如果你討厭冰淇淋,在夢中有人強迫你吃冰淇淋,那麼時間可能會持續很久。

And this seeming continuation is the quintessential aspect of the idea of reincarnation. This is important to know.

而這種看似連續的現象,是轉世輪迴思想的精髓所在。這一點很重要,一定要懂。

I know [that for] many people, the moment the word “reincarnation” is used, then they think in terms of “Okay, I’m a human being right now. Maybe next life, I will be become a horse and trot” or stuff like that. That’s fine. That’s a very gross level of understanding reincarnation. But it’s actually much more than that. This morning, we were very happy, some of us. And this afternoon, maybe we are not happy. And this evening, maybe we will be happy. Colours, manifestation, outfit, attitude — [all these are] changing. At the same time, there’s a continuation.

我知道,對許多人來說,一提到「轉世」這個詞,他們就會想到「我現在是一個人,也許下輩子,我將成爲一匹馬到處跑」或類似的東西。這也很好,這是理解轉世的一個非常粗略的層次。但實際上,它遠不止這些。今天早上,我們很高興,到了下午,也許我們並不快樂,而到了晚上,也許我們又會開心起來。顏色、外表、裝束、態度,所有這些都在變化。但與此同時,有一個連續性在那。

Why should we understand karma?

Why should we understand karma? Why should we really even bother about it?

我來總結一下。我們爲什麼要了解業力?我們爲什麼要真正地關心它呢?

This is important. Understanding karma is important because we all want freedom. If you want freedom, you need to understand how the game of cause and condition and effect is played. The rules of the game. How it is being played. Of course, ultimately, as Buddhists, [we] don’t want to be involved with the game. Of course, that’s the ultimate aim. But since we have already started to play the game now, [while] aiming not to play the game, we need to finish the game so to speak.

因為業力很重要。瞭解業力很重要,因爲我們都想要自由。如果你想要自由,你需要了解因果的遊戲是如何進行的,這個遊戲的規則,我們該怎麼玩。當然,最終,作爲佛教徒,我們不想參與遊戲,那是最終的目的。但是,既然我們現在已經開始玩這個遊戲,並且我們把目標瞄準在不玩遊戲,所以我們需要結束這個遊戲,可以這樣說。

Karmic connection & karmic debt

I think people are also interested to know about karmic connection and karmic debt, which are very related. Yes. Just as I talked about invisible causes and conditions. Remember, I was talking about the cow and all that? This applies here.

哦,差點忘了。有人想談談業力的連結和業債,它們是非常相關的。是的。就像我談到的無形的因和緣。還記得我談到牛的那個例子?在這裏也適用。

And you may think I’m being very romantic here. It is possible that right this very moment, somewhere in Bolivia, [there is] a person who is karmically connected to me. [And] because I’m using my hand too much here like this [DJKR waves his left hand from side to side in large motions], he’s feeling it. It’s possible.

一個你會覺得很浪漫的例子是,完全有可能,在此時此刻,在玻利維亞的某個地方,有一個與我有業力連結的人。因爲我的手在這邊一直這樣(仁波切大幅度揮舞他的手),他能感受的到。這是有可能的。

And by the time we go into this, then people say “Oh, now he’s talking about myth. And now he’s talking religion”, but okay. So be it. It doesn’t matter. You can think like that. But remember the logic of the great, great, great, great, great grandmother of the cow? If you apply that, I think you will then understand this a little.

而當我們深入這個問題時,人們會說「他說的是神話,然後又在說宗教」。好吧,那就這樣吧,這並不重要,你可以這樣想。但記得牛的曾曾曾曾曾祖母的邏輯嗎?如果你運用這一點,我想你到時就會有點明白。

Because it’s happening right now. [Between] me and some of you. I mean, for some of you we have never met. But here you are sacrificing two or three good hours of a Sunday [during] which you could have done so many other things like swimming or barbecue or whatever. But you are here listening to me. So [that’s] karmic debt. Maybe you are paying me? Or I’m paying you? We don’t know.

因爲它現在就在發生。我和你們中的一些人之間就是存在業力連結,但我的意思是,對於有些人,我們從未見過。但是你們在這裏犧牲了星期天的兩三個小時的美好時光,這時光本可以做很多其他事情,比如游泳或燒烤或其他什麼。但是你們卻在這裏聽我講課。這就是業債。也許你們在償還我的業債?還是我在償還你們的業債?我們不知道。

I’m a Buddhist. I’m surrounded by Buddhist texts. Yet sometimes I choose to read books like “Kafka on the shore” by Murakami. I’m reading ten pages, twenty pages. Somebody is making a sandwich but I’m still reading. [This is] karmic debt. I’m paying to him [i.e. Murakami] or he’s paying to me, whatever.

我是一個佛教徒,我的周圍充滿了佛經,然而有時我會讀村上春樹的《海邊的卡夫卡》這類書。我讀了十頁,二十頁。有人在做好吃的三明治,但我不為所動仍然在讀。這就是業債,我在償還給他(譯:指村上春樹)或他在償還給我,隨便吧。

What does this mean? This means all systems that we believe will work [like] socialism, democracy, elections, this, that — we don’t really know. We think they’re working, but it’s bit like the milk in the dream or the bleach in the dream.

這意味着什麼?這意味着所有我們認爲會起作用的系統,例如社會主義、民主、選舉、這個、那個,我們真的不確定,我們「以為」它們會管用,這有點像夢中的牛奶或夢中的漂白劑。

Conclusion

Okay. Lastly, by understanding karma, you will realize that nothing is independently [or] truly existing in an isolated way. And this will help you to have a bigger picture of your life. So, do you want to be a good manager, a good leader, boyfriend, girlfriend, father, mother, parent? [For] all these, understanding karma — how the game is played and the rules of the game — I think it can help.

好的。最後,通過了解業力,你會意識到沒有什麼東西是獨立存在的,真正以孤立的方式存在的。而這將幫助你對你的生活有一個更大的瞭解。所以,你想成爲一個好經理、好領導、男朋友、女朋友、爸爸、媽媽、好的父母嗎?所有這些,瞭解業力,了解這個遊戲是如何運作的,以及遊戲規則,我認爲它可以幫助到你。

This is basically a very rough attempt to explain karma [from] a few different angles. Of course, this is a very difficult subject and I hope I have answered some of your questions. Maybe I will also take three live questions.

這基本上是一個非常粗略的嘗試,從幾個不同的角度解釋業。當然,這也是一個非常困難的課題,我希望我已經回答了你們的一些問題。接受三個現場提問吧。

Q & A

Q: Can you talk about collective karma. Is there such a term? Does that exist?

問:您能談談共業嗎?有這樣一個術語嗎?是否存在共業?

DJKR: Very good. Yes. This is another big one. So bear in mind first that “collective” is very broad language. First just keep this in your head. There are about twenty people here and we’re all looking at a tree. And most of these people in front of me are human beings, I think. Which means that something like this with leaves and branches that has root growing, going inside the earth is being taught [to us] as a “tree”. I’m talking about “collective”. This very big generalization. Some of you here may be allergic to this tree. So they have a specific thing going on.

仁波切:非常好,這是另一個大問題。首先要記住,「共」是一個非常寬泛的語言,在你的腦海中要記住這一點。這裏有大約二十個人,我們都看著同一棵樹。而在我面前的這些人中的大多數都是人類,我想是。這意味着像這樣有葉子和樹枝,根向下長,伸入地球內部的東西,被教導這是「一棵樹」。這就是我們所說的「共」。這是非常大的概括,你們這裏有些人可能對這種樹過敏,所以他們又有一些不同。

And lots of people here right now, you’re not looking at this tree. So I’m sorry, [but then] you and I don’t have a collective karma to have the experience of seeing [this] tree. But I think we have a collective karma to hear about the tree. That’s just an example.

而現在在看直播的人,你沒有看到這棵樹。所以我很抱歉,你和我沒有共業來擁有看到對這棵樹的經驗,但我認爲我們有一個共業,可以聽到這棵樹發出的聲音。這只是一個例子。

And I think a very big one is the virus that’s happening right now [i.e. COVID-19]. That may be a very big collective karmic experience that we are having. Is it bad or good? Wow. That’s so difficult to say. between human beings, I guess we should say it’s bad. But I heard that a lot of animals are having a good time. You see? Again, good and bad are very subjective here.

而我認爲一個非常大的問題是現在正在發生的疫情(譯:COVID-19),這可能是我們正在經歷的一個非常大的共業體驗。它是惡業還是善業?哇,這真是太難說了。在人類看來,我想我們應該說它是惡業,但我聽說,很多動物都過得很開心。看到了嗎?這裡再次出現,善惡是非常主觀的。

And for us followers of the Buddha, it is our collective karma that Shakyamuni Buddha came on this earth, and his teachings are still alive. Okay, next question.

而對於我們這些佛陀的追隨者來說,釋迦牟尼佛來到這個地球上,他的教法還活躍在世間,這是我們的共業。


Q: What is the relationship between good karma and merit? Is there a difference between the two?

問:善業和功德之間是什麼關係?兩者之間有區別嗎?

DJKR: Merit, again, is a tricky word. I think this English word may not be doing the justice to translate the Sanskrit word punya. This is an important question, so I’m going to explain this a little bit. I think this is a fundamental question about ethics, isn’t it?

仁波切:功德,這又是一個棘手的詞。我認爲這個英文單詞可能沒有公正地翻譯梵文單詞 punya。這是一個重要的問題,所以我要稍微解釋一下。我想基本上這算是一個道德問題,不是嗎?

First, please keep in your head that morality, ethics, all these are secondary in Buddhism. If wisdom, compassion and morality are going for a drive, wisdom will be the driver. Compassion sits [beside] on the front seat. Morality is on the back seat, sometimes maybe in the trunk. I’m just sort of exaggerating a little bit to promote wisdom and compassion.

首先,請你記住,道德、倫理,所有這些在佛教中都是第二位的。如果智慧、悲心和道德要去兜風,智慧必須是司機,悲心坐在副駕駛的位置上,道德最多只能坐後排,有時還可能塞在後備箱。我有點誇張,那是為了表揚智慧和悲心。

[When it comes to] ethics and morality, ultimately the quintessence [of the Buddhadharma is] nonduality. [Whereas], ethics is so dualistic. You understand? There’s the right thing to do and the wrong thing to do. So wisdom has to basically overtake this [duality].

談到倫理和道德,究竟意義上,佛法的精髓是非二元,而道德是如此的二元。明白嗎?有正確的事情要做,也有錯誤的事情要做。因此,智慧基本上必須是在前面的。

There are many reasons for that, but one is this. How do you define what is [ethically] right? How do you decide? Well, [you use] some very relative logic. What you don’t like, you don’t do to others. I think there’s an expression like this [in Tibetan]. Use your own body and existence as an example. And what you don’t like, don’t do to others. That’s about all. It’s relative.

這有很多原因,但其中一個原因是這樣的。你如何定義什麼是道德正確?你如何決定?你只能使用一些非常相對的邏輯。有一種說法是:已所不欲勿施於人。用你自己的身體和存在作爲一個例子,你不喜歡的事,不要對別人做,這就是全部,這是相對的。

I don’t like getting punched by somebody. So therefore, I also don’t punch others. Because I’m assuming that the other person, [who is also a] human being, doesn’t like being punched. Let’s say I’ve been migrated to Mars. And there the most intimate thing to do is to punch [someone else]. And let’s say, I have been there for ten years now. Okay, after [only] one year I’m excused because I don’t know the culture or the habit. But I’ve been there for ten years, and I know they love being punched. And if I don’t punch them, I don’t know whether it’s good karma or bad karma. Something to think about. You guys should think about this.

我不喜歡被別人打一拳,因此,我也不打別人。因爲我假設另一個人,一個人類,不喜歡被打。假設我移民到了火星,在那裏,最親密的事情就是給別人一拳。比方說,我已經在那裏待了十年了。好吧,頭一年我還是可以原諒的,因爲我不瞭解那裏的文化或習慣。但我已經在那裏十年了,我知道他們喜歡被打,如果我不打他們,我不知道這是善業還是惡業。你們應該好好考慮一下這個問題。


Q: Can anyone bear (i.e. take on) the karmic consequences of sentient beings?

問:有人能替別的有情眾生承擔某些業力後果嗎?

DJKR: I will try to explain this one. But please bear in mind, I don’t want you to hear it in a sort of a theistic way. Buddha himself said that Buddha cannot wipe away your suffering. He can only teach you the way to liberate yourself from suffering and the causes of suffering.

仁波切:我將嘗試解釋這個問題,但請記住,我不想讓你聽出一種有神論的味道來。佛陀自己說過,佛不能抹去你的痛苦。他只能教你如何自己從痛苦中解脫出來,以及痛苦的原因。

But bodhisattvas pray “May all beings’ suffering come to me”. For the beginner bodhisattvas, this is a quintessential practice. But this one serves [as a skillful means] on many different levels. On one level, bodhisattvas are trying to really crush self cherishing. So, [they practice this] on that level. On another level, bodhisattvas are trying to put their feet in others’ shoes. [So they practice on] that level.

但菩薩們祈禱「願一切衆生的苦加諸我身」。對於初學菩薩來說,這是一個精髓的修法。但這個修法有很多很多不同的層面。在一個層面上,(1)菩薩們正試圖真正粉碎對自我的珍愛。而在另一個層面上,(2)菩薩們正試圖把自己的腳放在別人的鞋子裏(譯:設身處地理解對方)。

And ultimately Bodhisattvas are learning to actualize that there is no self and other. Nonduality. So in order to get accustomed to that kind of attitude of nonduality, they use the [method of thinking] the opposite of our usual thinking. For instance, usually when we suffer, the first thing we think about is ourselves. But bodhisattvas train themselves to not think this way.

而究竟上講,(3)菩薩們正在學習證悟沒有自我也沒有他人。這是非二元,因此,爲了習慣於那種非二元的態度,他們使用與我們日常相反的思維方式。例如,通常當我們受苦時,我們首先想到的是自己,但菩薩們訓練自己不要這樣想。

Yes, so the real answer [is that due to] the power of the bodhisattvas’ aspiration and bodhichitta [they are able to take on the suffering of all sentient beings]. They not only practice to [bring] all others’ suffering to themselves — [the next part] is tricky. You may hear this in a wrong way, so I’m bit worried — this can [alleviate] others’ suffering, but by the time it [i.e. the suffering of others] reaches the bodhisattva himself, it’s no longer suffering. Shantideva said this very clearly.

是的,所以真正的答案是,那是由於菩薩們的發願和菩提心的力量。他們不僅僅是說說「把所有其他人的痛苦帶到自己身上」(這裡有點難,你會聽錯,所以我有點擔心)。這可能真的會減輕他人的痛苦,但當痛苦到達菩薩本人時,它已經不再是痛苦了。寂天菩薩對此說得很清楚。

I think for most of our ears, it may not fit in. A statement such as “For a bodhisattva it is a joy when the suffering of others comes to them. So it’s no more suffering”. Can you understand the logic? So, don’t think that a bodhisattva is a masochist or something.

我想對於我們大多數人的耳朵來說,太難理解了。如果說成「對菩薩來說,當別人的痛苦降臨到自己身上時,是一種快樂,所以它不再是痛苦了。」你能理解這個邏輯嗎?所以,不要認爲菩薩是受虐狂之類的人。

And it’s doable. There’s a whole training on this. Even if you are the most stingy person [you can learn to be generous]. First you learn to give with your left hand to your right hand. I’m serious, there’s actually [a practice of] giving with the left hand to the right hand 100,000 times, like this. Then maybe [you can give other people some] chewing gum. I made this up. Shantideva said vegetable. You train and train. Then one day, somebody wants your left arm? No problem. [You will give it to them in just the same way] that you have no problem to give up your chewing gum.

並且,這是可以做到的。這方面有一整套訓練。即使你是最吝嗇的人,你也可能修行佈施。首先你要學會用你的左手給你的右手。我是認真的,真的有這樣一個修法,用左手給右手十萬次,像這樣。然後也許你可以佈施像口香糖這樣的小東西。這句是我編的,寂天說的是佈施蔬菜。你不停地訓練,然後有一天,有人想要你的左臂?沒問題!就像你佈施口香糖那樣沒問題。

I don’t think the common people can understand this. But it’s not that difficult to understand actually, if you apply a bit of analysis. If you have too many stuffed animals [or] dolls in your house, in your Iiving room, [and they] are taking up too much of your space, then you have no qualms in giving them away, right? Because you have realized this is just a stuffed animal. It’s not a real bear.

我不認爲普通人能夠真正理解這一點。但實際上這並不難理解,如果你運用一點分析的話。如果你的起居室裏有太多的毛絨玩具,佔用了你太多的空間,你會毫不猶豫地把它們送走,對嗎?因爲你已經意識到這只是一個填充玩具,這不是一隻真正的熊。

That’s it. Thank you so much. I hope this works as the beginning of discussing karma. Karma is very big. There is a sutra called the Rice Seedling Sutra. If you are interested, you can look into that. You can begin [as] a karma-fearing person. But hopefully, you [will] transcend from karma-fearing to karma understanding. And then hopefully, [you will] shrug off all kinds of karma, of course the bad karma, but even the good.

就這樣吧。非常感謝你們。我希望這能作爲討論業力的開始,業力是非常廣大的。有一部經叫《稻竿經》。如果你有興趣,你可以研究一下。你可以開始做一個畏懼業力的人。但希望你能從畏懼業力超越到理解業力。然後,希望你能甩掉所有種類的業,當然包括惡業,但甚至是善業。

Okay, thank you.

好的,謝謝大家。


宗薩欽哲仁波切,於 2021年7月18日 在美國加利福尼亞州,給予了名為《業》的開示。英文部分由 Alex Li Trisoglio(仁波切指定的佛法老師)聽寫,並分段和添加標題,發布在 Madhyamaka.com。中文部分由 孫方 翻譯。並在翻譯過程中,根據視頻做了文字上的修訂,所以中英文部分可能會有可忽略不計的微小差別。


補充材料

《稻竿經》在漢文大藏經中至少有三個譯本,如下:


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